The forest consists of various plants and animals.An example is a record of about 10,500 species found in a deciduous tree in Switzerland.The total number of plants and animals living in the forest is greater.All living things in the forest make up a complex ecosystem with a physical environment.All living things need energy to live.As in other ecosystems, forest life relies on solar energy, but only green plants use solar energy directly to produce nutrients from photosynthesis.In the forest, all other living things depend on green plants to get solar energy.Green plants are the primary producers.Plant-eating animals are called primary consumers or herbivores.Animals that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers or carnivores.Secondary consumers become prey to other carnivorous animals called tertiary consumers. This series of processes from primary producers to different levels of consumers is called food chain Energy is passed from one stage of food chain to the next in the form of food grains, and it loses a lot of energy as it is passed on to the next.All living things are made up of basic chemical elements.In order for living things to survive, they must be recirculated.A worm fungus in the soil of a forest. Some insects and single-celled organisms recirculate chemical elements as decomposers. The decomposer obtains nutrients by breaking down the carcasses or excrements of plants and animals into basic elements.The decomposed element enters the soil and enters the plant.be absorbed by the roots Without this process, essential elements such as nitrogen, calcium, would soon be depleted. The circulation of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through the photosynthesis of plants and the breathing process of animals.All plants and animals in the forest compete with the same species, or with similar species, to survive and acquire the necessary elements, such as nutrient spaceThrough this competition, the most adaptable creature to the environment survives and thrives. Cooperation is also essential for survival.Fruit-eating birds and mammals eat plants and spread seeds.Some fungi grow from the roots of live trees to get their food and instead help them absorb the water and nutrients they need.